A bio-social ecosystem recognizes the social ecosystem and the physical ecosystem as equal partners. To the extent that federal land managers still drive environmental decisions strictly from a physical ecosystem perspective, current conflicts of federal land use will not be alleviated. Conflicts that still surround the northern spotted owl, grazing on public lands, and numerous other biological issues on federal, state, and private land are evidence of a failure to recognizee the social (human) ecosystem as critical to productive harmony and long-term sustainability. The human element is still treated as a by-product of the management of the physical resource. A balanced approach to issue management would recognize and treat the features of the physical ecosystem and the social ecosystem equally.