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Chapter 20

The South Willamette Human Resource Unit


The South Willamette Human Resource Unit is comprised of thirteen Community Resource Units, of which seven have a community report in the subsequent chapters (starred items):





Upper McKenzie*

Lower McKenzie



Fern Ridge*





Cottage Grove*


This chapter serves to summarize the more detailed descriptions of the seven CRUs that follow in the next chapters. It is divided into the following sections:


A.      A Summary of Cultural Descriptors

B.       Key Findings Related to Community Life

C.       Key Findings Related to Public Lands

D.      A Summary of Citizen Issues Related to Public Lands


Tables Six and Seven at the end of this chapter draw upon census data referred to in the following pages.


A. A Summary of Cultural Descriptors

Geographic Features


The South Willamette Human Resource Unit stretches from the crest of the Cascade Mountains to the crest of the coastal mountains, and from Monroe and Harrisburg on the north nearly to Drain on the south, dipping slightly into Douglas County. Figure 60 shows a map of the HRU.


Geographically, this area is quite diverse, including narrow canyon corridors (McKenzie) and large areas of forested uplands (Oakridge) as well as the flat expanse of the Willamette River Valley (Veneta, Junction City,

Figure 60

Map of the South Willamette Human Resource Unit

Springfield). Basic geographic features have determined features of human settlement from the beginning. It is an area born of dispersed rural settlement centered on agriculture, timber, the river and the railroad. The isolation of the many rural areas created unique identities in the small communities. Only as the commuting economy and ties to the urban areas of Eugene and Springfield have deepened in the last thirty years has a true regional identity begun to emerge.


Settlement Patterns


The South Willamette Human Resource Unit (HRU) is approximately equivalent to Lane County minus the coast. A more precise HRU definition based on census block group identifiers, is found within the 1990-2000bg.xls data file on the distribution CD. Twelve cities are located in Lane County, with Eugene being the largest (137,893). Other cities include Springfield (52,864) and Cottage Grove (8,445).


According to the 2000 census, the South Willamette HRU has a total resident population of 312,022 persons, an increase of 14.6% over 1990 levels. This comparatively low rate of growth parallels natural increases with little net migration. Eugene, which constitutes nearly 40% of the area population, had increased in population by 15% from 117,962 in 1990. Areas with higher growth rates include Creswell (27%), Harrisburg (26%), and the River Road area (24%). By contrast, the very rural areas - McKenzie/Rainbow, Oakridge, and Westfir slightly lost population. The pattern in the South Willamette HRU is the same pattern noticed in the Greater Salem and Mid-Valley HRUs: 1) The urban centers grew about 13-15%; 2) The ring of small towns surrounding the urban center grew much more rapidly, ranging from 24 to 28%; 3) The very rural areas held even or lost population slightly.


Migration patterns have changed somewhat between the 1985-1990 and 1995-2000 periods tracked by the census bureau. The number of individuals residing in the same house between 1995 and 2000 increased to 293,684 from a total of 254,005 reporting that pattern between 1985 and 1990. The number of persons moving to South Willamette from outside of Oregon remained at 36,000 during the 1995-2000 period, the same numbers recorded for 1985-1990. Another 23,000 reportedly moved to South Willamette from within Oregon, again unchanged from the number observed for the prior decade. About 92,170 persons changed their residence within Lane County during the 1995-2000 period, an increase of 15,206 such movers over 1985-1990 levels.


Settlement in the South Willamette Human Resource Unit was begun with agriculture, logging, and mining. Eugene settlement began in 1846. Springfield began next to a spring in 1849. The Applegate Trail, stretching from Dallas on the north to southern Oregon in the south, was a key means of settlement in the early years. The Fern Ridge area was settled by virtue of the Applegate Trail that skirts the western edge of the Willamette River Valley.


The Willamette River has figured centrally in the settlement of the South Willamette Valley. From the start, the Willamette River was important as an attraction to settlement and key feature in determining settlement patterns. Early flooding characterized history in the area from Harrisburg to Cottage Grove. A series to dams were built, which became a primary impetus of continued settlement in the very rural areas of the HRU. Two dams were built in the Cottage Grove area in the 1930s. The Long Tom River was damned in 1942, creating the Fern Ridge Reservoir.


Timber production was the key economic activity driving settlement in the rural areas, while agriculture dominated on the valley floor. Many older residents are part of families with long histories in the traditional economic activities associated with forest products and agriculture.


Schools in the rural areas helped create social ties between families and contributed to the community identity in many of the rural areas.


"Schools that have been consolidated over time have probably created the most association between people here." [Fern Ridge]


The decline of timber production, and advances in education that lead residents to higher-skill jobs in the urban labor market, have fueled a commuting economy. In addition, as revealed by the census data, in-migration is occurring very rapidly in the mid-sized towns, partly by retired people and partly by young families searching for affordable housing.


"I love Cottage Grove because it has a small town atmosphere with a splash of urban sophistication. Not every small town has two health food stores and a strong art association."


"It's become a community of newcomers, but they don't get involved right away. It takes them awhile to settle before they start to join in. The large apartment complex south of town is more transient. Those people don't tend to stay." [Tri-County]


"Commuting is hard, especially for families." [Upper McKenzie]


The commuting patterns are changing the business sectors in small communities. They are becoming more oriented to highway traffic. People talk about two commercial areas in Oakridge now, the more recent on being located on Highway 58. Much of Veneta's commercial activity has moved from its old downtown to the West Lane Center, along Highway 126, reflecting the increased importance of car traffic to the local economy.


"Now, everything is oriented to Highway 58 to get the car traffic." [Oakridge]


"We moved to Eugene as a kid because my family could not make it here. We moved back when we could. That was the pattern." [Oakridge]


"I have a trailer in Oakridge because it is twice as cheap as living in Eugene." [Oakridge]




The age distribution of the HRU changed slightly through the 1990s, with the mean age rising from 35.4 to 36.9. Children between the ages of 5 and 17 increased in number by 11% from 48,514 to 53,988 in 2000. The senior population (ages 65 and over) grew by a similar 11% from 34,583 persons to 38,626. The dependency ratio, which measures the balance of children and retirees over those 18 to 65, declined from .59 to .55 reflecting the higher growth rates of the 18 to 65 population.


The South Willamette area was 95% white in 1990, declining somewhat to 90.5% in 2000. This change reflects the significant increase in the Hispanic population, up by 7,950 persons to 14,471 in 2000 - a growth rate of 117%. Other minorities also increased significantly over 1990 levels. Asians (28%), blacks (23%), and American Indians (17%) all exceeded the area's overall growth rate.


Married couple households declined in proportion from 54.7% to 48.8% of all households during the 1990's. Growth occurred among single person households (from 26,428 to 32,978) and female headed households (from 9,469 to 12,645). The proportion of households living in their owned home remained about 58% of all households, with renters comprising about 37%.


Beyond the social categories revealed by the census, occupation and interest appear to be the most locally-relevant for understanding the publics in the HRU. Occupational publics include:


Business people


Loggers and mill workers

Recreational business

Home-based businesses

"Modem cowboys" (internet based)


Working poor

Welfare poor



Interest publics include:


Various recreation publics described in a later section

Counter-culture people

Retired people


Young families


Work Routines


Census data have much to reveal about local work routines and economic livelihood. The average household income grew throughout the area by 52% over the decade, with wages and salaries increasing by 49%. Retirement income (93%) and income from interest, dividends, and rent (84%) grew nearly twice that rate, reflecting expansion in the senior population. Public assistance income fell by nearly 28%, as the welfare reforms of the mid 1990s began to take effect.


Homeowners paying mortgages in excess of 30% of their income rose by 6,390 households from 14.1% to 22% of all homeowners, reflecting rapidly appreciating housing values and lagging income gains. Renters paying in excess of 30% of their income in rent rose by 3,822 renters from 44.6% to 47% of all renters.


While the overall poverty rate remained almost unchanged at a comparatively high 14.3% for the decade, there were significant racial differences in these patterns. Hispanics in poverty increased by 140% from 1,606 to 3,860. The poverty rate for Hispanics increased from 24.5% to 27% over the decade. The poverty rates for Asians and American Indians in poverty declined somewhat, while the absolute number of poverty individuals increased.


South Willamette's economy is dominated by the City of Eugene and the University of Oregon. The area's labor force of more than 152,000 workers is dominated by manufacturing (19.2%), educational services (14.5%), and retail trade (10.8%). Employment in all three of these industries declined during the 1990's, reflecting diversification and the growth in construction and business and health services. Agriculture and forestry work lost 832 workers during the decade, a decline of 19.8%.


The occupational distribution of the area reflects the presence of the University and the growth in area retail trade. Managerial, professional, and executive workers increased by 54% from 31,534 workers in 1990 to 48,688 in 2000. These employees represent 32% of the labor force. Craft and skilled workers comprise a significant 25% of the labor force, declining slightly from 26.8% in 1990. Technical, sales, and administrative occupations comprise 26.5% of the labor force, representing a decline of 2,149 workers from 30.3% in 1990.


Timber activity shifted from a regional, dispersed focus to an industrial model of large scale production in the decades following World War II. Veneta, Elmira, and Cottage Grove were timber towns and today still have a viable forest products economic sector. It wasn't until the 1960s and 1970s, for example, that Cottage Grove really began to thrive in relation to increased timber production.


As timber production declined, workers from throughout the region had to adjust.


"My husband and I were laid off at Weyerhaeuser in the mid-eighties. I went back to school and got trained to operate a bus. I know five other drivers that also worked in the timber industry." [Springfield]


"It used to be a logging town but now everybody's either retrained or gone." [Springfield]


The region as a whole has successfully diversified its economic base, very much reducing the overall impacts of timber's decline. Today, the largest employers in the HRU are:


Health care facilities;

Timber products manufacturing;

Education (higher and secondary);

Manufacturing (recreational vehicles, high technology, computer-based industry); and

Trades and services businesses.


Trade and services employment is related to: 1) the service needs of a growing population; 2) the growing recreation and visitor market; and, 3) the increased presence of the retirement community in Oregon, related both the natural aging of the population and the in-migration of senior citizens from other places.


Residents in the HRU, particularly in Springfield and Oakridge, reported a depressed job market currently.

"These are bad times. There aren't many jobs out there. My mom and her friends were recently laid off from their mill jobs." [Springfield]


The commuting economy has relegated many small rural communities to the status of "bedroom communities." One estimate is that 85% of the workforce in Fern Ridge commutes to jobs outside the area (Fern Ridge Business Directory, Fern Ridge Chamber of Commerce, City of Veneta, 2002-2003). Junction City and Harrisburg are oriented to commuters, as is Pleasant Hill and Lowell. The Oakridge and McKenzie areas have always depended on commuting, although not as much as lower elevation areas.


Local businesses have struggled to maintain viability in the face of declining local sectors like timber and commuting residents who can shop elsewhere. Specialization appears to be the key. Oakridge is beginning to bill itself as the "Center of Oregon Recreation." Cottage Grove has many antique shops and other gift shops for travelers and retired people.


B. Key Findings Related to Community Life


1.       The very rural areas like Upper McKenzie, Oakridge, and areas around Cottage Grove, reported an infusion of urban residents and urban problems as timber activity declined. For some people, for example in Oakridge, the change was low income residents that have come to the community in the last ten years. The perception is that the attraction is the affordable housing available in Oakridge. Other areas related major problems with drug and other criminal activities. Residents in the Row River drainage (Cottage Grove) talked about methamphetamine labs and "people with felonies."


"One summer there were 60 stolen cars recovered in this area." [Cottage Grove, Dorena area]


"I had to leave Springfield when I was in high school to get away from the bad influences. All of my friends have been to jail or are in jail now." [Springfield]


2. An increased reliance and dependence on commuting as an economic strategy with attendant consequences for family, community, and economic life.


3. Although not directly assessed for this research, local residents generally believe that the remaining forest products facilities have a fair degree of stability.


4. Retirement influences are more pronounced in the region, with services and programs becoming oriented to this age category.


5. Urban people are moving into rural areas. Creswell and Harrisburg are growing at very steady rates, 27% and 26% respectively, during the last decade. Coburg is considered the "future Hillsboro of Lane County." By contrast, Eugene grew 15% and Springfield by 13%.


Community Themes


1.       There is a long-standing tension between the urban and rural areas with the South Valley HRU. Political conflict about timber production and forest management is the most visible form of this theme. Differences in educational levels, work routines, and outlooks mean that this theme will continue to characterize rural/urban differences. Many rural residents denigrate Eugene, for example, because of the perception that it is radically "green", that its residents do not understand or support rural lifestyles, and that Eugeneans believe that rural residents are not stewards of the land.


"There's always been somewhat of a culture clash between the hippies and the loggers." [Cottage Grove]


2. "We are changing from a natural resource area to a bedroom community."


"Bedroom commuters don't invest in the community as much - their scope of community is much broader, like Eugene." [Cottage Grove]


Citizen Issues Related to Community Life




"Lane County is talking about consolidating 911 centers, merging Oakridge and Florence. There's a lot of forest and highway to cover. Oakridge needs to have 24 hour service." [Oakridge]


"A new wastewater plant is needed but there is no funding yet for the project." [Cottage Grove]


"That's the problem with this town. Everyone wants to live here but nobody wants to support the downtown." [Harrisburg]


Growth and Development


"There are so many people now. West Eugene has really sprawled." [Eugene]


"There's a high turnover in businesses." [Cottage Grove]


"Veneta has the potential to boom. The limit has been the water and sewer moratorium, but that has been lifted. Not everybody wants growth." [Fern Ridge]


"We can't keep business here." [Springfield]


"The downtown revitalization project needs support. The City has done well diversifying the economy but revitalization efforts need new energy to keep the momentum going." [Springfield]


"We need a grocery store badly." [Harrisburg]


Quality of Life


"It takes me 20 minutes to drive 5 blocks in the morning because there's four signals between my home and my daughter's day care. I've only lived here for 7 years but it's already time to move out." [Eugene, Bethel resident]


"We need more young families to keep the diversity of the town." [Cottage Grove]


"Commuting takes a toll on the parents. They have less time for their kids." [Oakridge]




"We are lacking services here for kids. There just isn't enough for what we're dealing with." [Fern Ridge]


"Kids have parties out at the landings [old logging landings]. We lose one senior a year to alcohol-related traffic accidents. Kids here are in high poverty. The schools lost their mental health counselors." [Fern Ridge]


"Kids have nothing to do. Drinking and drugs are a big problem. A new officer has been hired to track tends down that are partying in the woods." [Oakridge]


"Many kids don't want to leave Oakridge. They like living here, but they're forced to leave because there are no jobs. I knew two boys a few years out of high school that left for Eugene but came back because they missed living here." [Oakridge]


C. Key Findings Related to Public Lands


1. HRU residents are active in the out-of-doors. The outdoors and recreation amenities of the area are one of the primary community values and a primary reason for settlement into the area. Fishing, swimming, boating, water skiing, camping, bicycling, hiking, hunting, horseback riding, skiing, snowmobiling, mountain biking, fourwheeling, and wilderness exploring are all common activities.


"This is an ideal location for both surfing and skiing because we're close to both. An hour drive either way." [Eugene]


2. The urban areas are characterized by strong environmental aesthetics oriented to parks, bike and walking paths, habitat restoration, and environmental education. The City of Eugene, especially, has had long-standing involvement in environmental education and programming. The smaller communities include environmental quality goals in their comprehensive plans and many are active in promoting environmentally-sensitive planning and development. The Lane Council of Governments (LCOG) is active in creating regional parks and open space. Its Open Space Initiative, supported in part through the Forest Service Forest Legacy program, is a new project to protect rivers, ridges, and other natural assets between Springfield and Eugene.


"We want clean water. There's a situation with septic tanks in North Eugene. The water comes this way." [Tri-County]


3. Many of the smaller communities have strong ties to the Oregon Department of Forestry and deal with many private timberland concerns. These are communities, such as Veneta, that have high amounts of private, forested lands.


4. The environmental ethic is strongly ingrained throughout the HRU and is most politically visible in Eugene. Eugene has a tremendous variety of environmental organizations interested in stewardship and natural resource management.


5. The primary focus on public lands currently relates to creation. Although recreation uses were not quantified in this research, the language of residents suggests that use is going up at steady rates and with ever-increasing variety. Most citizen issues (see below) related to recreation. Although user conflicts do not appear to be high, each user group had particular ideas for improving their experience on public lands. We found some rural areas are not very oriented yet to recreation interests (Oakridge, Cottage Grove, Harrisburg, Junction City) while the Upper McKenzie, for example, has become very oriented to a recreation economy.


6. A host of publics continues to have interest in a politically viable timber sale program. From traditional Oregonians whose families have engaged in forest related employment, to business people, elected officials, program directors, and even a good number of environmentalists, many people stated that they thought the Forest Service could be more active than it has been in offering politically-acceptable timber sales. Although the attitudes on this point are very diverse, the research shows a large "moderate" segment with fairly close areas of agreement.


7. The Forest Service has extensive and long-standing ties throughout the region but these ties appear uneven and stronger in the rural areas near Ranger District offices, and quite weak in the urban areas. The examples of Forest Service/community ties are too extensive to repeat here, but two examples show the depth of some ties.


In Oakridge, a partial listing of Forest Service/community ties includes:


Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) with high school kids;

Outdoor School through the Oakridge School District;

Volunteer Day;

Youth engaged in community service;

The Middle School is working with the Forest Service on a trails program;

Forest Service staff serve in various capacities in the community from boards of various organizations (school board, city council) to teaching wrestling;

Support of the industrial park;

Collaborative activities with the Family Resource Center within Oakridge Elementary School, including a Forest Service mural and art work in the agency lobby.


Some examples of the activities of the McKenzie Ranger District staff in the community includes:


Volunteer ambulance

Volunteer fire department

School Board

Natural resource education

Youth Conservation Corps

Scholarship funds

Blue River CDC

Blue River Water District

McKenzie Arts Forum

McKenzie Watershed Council


That level of involvement is not noted in the urban areas and urban ties appear individually conceived and directed. For example, a BLM staff person is reportedly on the board of the Mt. Pisgah Arboretum. An Umpqua National Forest person has assisted two neighborhood groups in Eugene to include habitat restoration and trail development projects.


"I've never known a Forest Service person to be involved in this community, except in an official capacity. How come they are not members of the Chamber or some of the civic organizations?" [Springfield city official]


 D. A Summary of Themes and Citizen Issues Related to Public Lands


Community Themes

1. "Recreation is not going to save us." Jobs associated with recreation do not pay well, and recreation-oriented businesses come and go. Local people have little confidence yet that the recreation economy can last or provide adequate livelihood. The timber sector was valued not only for the independence that it represented but the family wage income it provided - a standard of living not yet duplicated in the new economy.

"These communities should not become dependent on recreation. Recreation is not economically stable." [Upper McKenzie]


2. "There has to be more dialogue." Residents believed that the present polarization between adherents of "cut" and "no cut" is so strong that public timber sales are unlikely in the short term. However, most believed that better communication was the only way to move beyond present conditions.


3. "We don't know what the rules are anymore." Forest Service staff expressed this theme in relation to the great number of changes that have taken past over the last several years. It reflects the great uncertainty in management since timber production has declined but new management missions have not always been clear.


"People have lost trust with the Forest Service. They perceive we lost the mill, put in the fee demos, had problems with survey and management; now there are road closures." [Oakridge]



4. There is a tremendous diversity in outlook and values within the environmental community centered in Eugene and elsewhere.


"I don't know that there is an environmental community here. We're all environmental." [Eugene]


"Environmental groups here are so fragmented. It would be impossible to craft a coherent direction or vision." [Eugene]


5. There is great diversity of attitudes about federal land management agencies.


"The courts seem to be the only voices that are effective with the Forest Service." [Eugene]


"The Forest Service should live in the community where they make decisions so they are aware of their effects." [Upper McKenzie]


"Environmentalists go too far. My message to the Forest Service is, 'Don't let the radicals take over. Keep a common sense approach.'" [Fern Ridge]


Citizen Issues Related to Natural Resource Management




"If the Forest Service loses anymore staff, or if they close another office, how are they going to manage their lands? There is so much land out there." [Oakridge]


"The Forest Service is too removed from the community. They never talk to the common person. We need to be educated and informed. It seems like they are keeping things from us." [Eugene]


"If the Forest Service wants our support, then educate us." [Eugene]


"Why would you go to the federal courthouse unless you were in trouble?" [Eugene]


"The Forest Service needs to tell citizens what benefits they provide the community. I watched the hillsides in Bethel cleared for houses, which has caused massive erosion, increased and damaging waterflow, more dust and septic tank problems. They can help us create stewardship approaches to human habitats." [Eugene]


Outdoor Education


"The [outdoor education] programs are piecemealed together from random funding using already overworked educators. We need to institutionalize these programs." [Cottage Grove]


"A lot of students come from urban areas. They need more education about the forest, about proper conduct." [Eugene]


"It would be nice to see the Forest Service work with the kids on a two or three week project so they could see a beginning and ending." [Springfield Parks and Recreation Department staff]


"The outdoor education program was canceled due to state wide budget cuts. A lot of people miss that program." [Tri-County]


Recreation, General


"The Forest Service should not allow dune buggies on the Oregon coast. It ruins the outdoor experience for me and my friends." [Eugene]


"The dune buggies and vehicles have taken over [at the Oregon Dunes]. There's nowhere for people to walk who aren't riding. I grew up going to the dunes, playing in sands, enjoying them without riding. I won't take my daughter to play there now." [Fern Ridge, Woman in her twenties]


"I used to see only a few people out in the forest, but now you see lots more. It's almost getting overcrowded." [Eugene]




"The road closure policy is a good one. The forest needs a breather for a while. You can still hike in." [Oakridge]


"Road closures are good during hunting season because it limits the poaching. It's harder on older hunters, though, who can't walk far distances." [Oakridge]


"Every time I go out to hunt, there are more roads closed. It's very frustrating because we don't know which roads are going to be closed until we are in the woods. So much of the mountains are no longer accessible because the roads leading up to them are closed. Road 2104 is especially a loss. It's closed because of a slide, but it probably won't get cleared." [Oakridge]


"There are too many roads that are gated off. The gravel roads already in the mountains should be maintained." [Cottage Grove]


Recreation Fees


"With the fee system in place, it is hard for low income people to get into the woods. They don't feel like the forest is 'theirs' in the same way that people with money do." [Springfield]


"You get to the trailhead and find you need a pass. It takes you two hours to get to another; Where do you get passes? We used to get them at Hoodoo, now I think GI Joes in Eugene has them." [Eugene]


"They want money for everything. To park your rig at boat ramps costs money. The Willamette Pass costs $30 and they are doing it without congressional approval." [Eugene bass fisher]


"Some sites have additional permits, like Green Lakes and Cougar. Information ahead of time about these permits is hard to get." [Eugene]


"You pay through your teeth now. There is no free use of anything anymore, whether for picnics or hiking. You pay a fee at trailheads. You go for a picnic and pay a fee." [Fern Ridge]


"The Fee Demos are very confusing, especially for students who are in and out. They get up to the site, they can't purchase a permit there, and are faced with the choice of driving back or getting a ticket." [Eugene]


"People don't understand the permits. If we had more information, it would be helpful. It would be great if we could issue the forest permit, since we're already doing snow park permits." [Eugene, Sporting goods store clerk]


"The Forest Pass is not right. We all pay taxes to use public land. There needs to be exceptions for certain things." [Oakridge; This issue was mentioned many times and many of the stores had 'Just Say No to USDA Forest Pass.']


Recreation, Mountain biking


"We had 70 bikers come through last year. They didn't buy a thing but they left a lot of trash. Most of these trips are catered so most people don't need to buy anything." [Cottage Grove]


"The Forest Service in Oakridge does not recognize all the volunteer work we do. They cut holes in trails to add water logs and call them 'speedbumps.' Someone is going to get hurt on these. Some have been filled in, like the Waldo Lake trail, but others like Maiden Peak trail are still dangerous." [Eugene]


"I used to go in the Goudyville area all the time between Cottage Grove and Lorane. I went out there the other day and found gates." [Eugene resident; apparently, this is Weyerhaeuser land.]


Information and Service


"Updates on trail information are difficult to obtain. During a fire, or after a storm, it's hard to find the right person to get the information. A web page that is centrally managed is a good idea. River runners are great about this - you can find out current water levels anytime." [Eugene]


"There is a shortage of maps. Information about trail conditions is hard to find. Many employees don't know the area as well as others, so customers are not always well informed." [Eugene, Sporting goods store manager]


"A lot of my customers want a map showing land ownership. It's very confusing and often changes. Something up to date." [Oakridge, Sporting goods store manager]


Forest Management


"No clearcuts." [Very common]


"The only good timber sale is a cancelled timber sale." [Eugene forest activist]


"Every single timber sale planned around here has big trees in it - Blodgett, Flatco, Straw Devil, Pryor, Clark, Northnoon, Sten, and Turnridge. That's not thinning and it's not forest health." [Eugene forest activist]


"Logging should not be stopped completely, especially the brown and down trees. Blown trees are a waste of natural resource if they are left on the ground." [Springfield]


"Keep logging off the streams. There's still some siltation in the streams."


"Strip logging should not be permitted any longer, but thinning should happen." [Cottage Grove]


"How come there isn't a real program to get timber to these mills?" [Cottage Grove]


"The checkerboard areas make it hard to do prescribed fires. Most fire prevention is to educate the public Fire parties with kids is one of our biggest fire risks." [Fern Ridge, ODF staff]


"The trees are disappearing from areas that the public can easily see. When we logged, it was in remote areas." [Springfield, a group of retired people]



Table Six































































Table Seven

Population Profile of Incorporated Places in the South Willamette HRU, 1990-2000


Table Seven (Continued)






Table Seven (Continued)






Table Seven (Continued)


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